Its an interface between user and computer. An Operating System performs all the basic tasks like managing file, process, and memory. Thus operating system acts as manager of all the resources, i.e. resource manager. Thus operating system becomes an interface between user and machine.

Types of Operating Systems: operating systems are as follows-

1. Batch Operating System –
This type of operating system does not interact with the computer directly.

There is an operator which takes similar jobs having same requirement and group them into batches. It is the responsibility of operator to sort the jobs with similar needs.

Advantages of Batch Operating System:

  • It is very difficult to guess or know the time required by any job to complete. Processors of the batch systems know how long the job would be when it is in queue
  • Multiple users can share the batch systems
  • The idle time for batch system is very less
  • It is easy to manage large work repeatedly in batch systems

Disadvantages of Batch Operating System:

  • The computer operators should be well known with batch systems
  • Batch systems are hard to debug
  • It is sometime costly
  • The other jobs will have to wait for an unknown time if any job fails

Examples of Batch based Operating System: Payroll System, Bank Statements etc.

2. Time-Sharing Operating Systems –
Each task is given some time to execute, so that all the tasks work smoothly. Each user gets time of CPU as they use single system. These systems are also known as Multitasking Systems. The task can be from single user or from different users also. The time that each task gets to execute is called quantum. After this time interval is over OS switches over to next task.

Advantages of Time-Sharing OS:

  • Each task gets an equal opportunity
  • Less chances of duplication of software
  • CPU idle time can be reduced

Disadvantages of Time-Sharing OS:

  • Reliability problem
  • One must have to take care of security and integrity of user programs and data
  • Data communication problem

Examples of Time-Sharing OSs are:Multics, Unix etc.

3. Distributed Operating System –
These types of operating system is a recent advancement in the world of computer technology and are being widely accepted all-over the world and, that too, with a great pace. Various autonomous interconnected computers communicate each other using a shared communication network. Independent systems possess their own memory unit and CPU. These are referred as loosely coupled systems or distributed systems. These system’s processors differ in size and function. The major benefit of working with these types of operating system is that it is always possible that one user can access the files or software which are not actually present on his system but on some other system connected within this network i.e., remote access is enabled within the devices connected in that network.

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