1.Internal commands: The internal commands are those commands that are automatically loaded in the memory. Some commonly used DOS internal commands are

 Cls : clear the display screen
 Dir : displays the list of directories
 Date : displays the current system date
 Ver : displays the current version
 Copycon : to create  a file
 Type: to see the contents of a file
 Ren : to rename the old file name with new file name.
 Del : this command is to delete file
 CD : to change from one director to another directory
 MD : to create a new directly or sub directly
 RD : to remove a directory or sub directory.
 COPY : command is to copy one or more specified files to another disk


  
1) Cls :- The purpose of this command is to clear the display screen and redisplay the Dos prompt at the top  left corner of the screen.
Syntax:- C : / > Cls
2) Dir:- It displays the list of directories and files on the screen.
Syntax:- C : / > dir.   

  a. C : / > dir/p – It displays the list of directories or files page wise   

  b. C: / > dir/w- It displays the list of directories or files width wise     

  c. C : / > dir/d: –It display list of directories or files in drive D  

   d. C : / > dir filename extension – It displays the information of specified file. 

    e. C : / > dir file name with wild cards.
Wild cards: – It is the set of special characters wild are used with some commonly used DOS commands there are two types of wild cards.
1. Asterisk (*˜)

2. Question mark (?)
1. Asterisk:-  (*) The wild word will match all characters.

 1. C : / > dir *.* – will display list of all files and directories.

 2. C : / > dir R*.* – will display all files stored with first character R.

2. Question mark: – This wild card represents a single character that a group or files have in common.
1) C : / > dir  ac .* ˜- will display all files having any first character and remaining name has given in command.
2) C : / > dir ??? R . doc-will display all files having extension doc and having any first three letters and fourth letter is R.
3) Date: – It displays the current system date. User can also change the current date with new date by using this command.
Syntax: – C : /> date Current date is: fri 1-01-2024Enter of new date (mm-dd-yy):-
4. Time : – It displays the current systems time user can also change existing time with new time by using this command.
Syntax : – C : / > time Current time is 12 : 39 – 48 : 36 p Enter new time : –
5. VER : It displays the version of DOS being used currently.
Syntax : – C : / > Ver MS – Dos version 6 : 20Copy card .
6. copycon : – The purpose of this command is to create  a file.
Syntax : – C : / > copy con filename . extension
Saves the contents of file by pressing  ctrl +z key combination at the last time of the file. File name should not be greater than 11 characters out of which 8 characters are for the name and 3 characters are for the extension.
Extension is optional  :Eg : C : / > copy con r1 I am a good boy1. File is copied.C : / >
7. TYPE:- Allows the user to see the contents of a file.
Syntax :- C  >Type path Eg: C:/ > Type D:/> r1
8. REN : – The purpose of this command is to rename the old file name with new file name.
Syntax : – C : / > ren oldfilename newfilename C : / > ren r1 som
9. DEL:- The purpose of this command is to delete file. The user can also delete multiple files by busing this command and long with while cards.
Syntax : – C : / > Del file name extension                   C : / > Del r1                  C : Del x . prg.
10. MD:- The purpose of this command is to create a new directly or sub directly i.e sub ordinate to the currently logged directly.
Syntax : – C : /> MD directory C : /> MD sub directory
Ex : C : / > MD college Now user wants to create a sub directory first year in college directory then

C : / > cd bca

C : / > bca > Md first year

It show bca>first year
11. CD : – The purpose of this command is to change from one director to another directory or sub – directory.
Syntax : – C : / > CD directory name
Ex : C: / > cd college

C : / > BCA > CD first year

C : / > BCA > first year >If the user wants to move to the parents directory then use CD command as

C : / > BCA > first year > cd ….

C : / >BCA >
12 . RD: – The purpose of this command is to remove a directory or sub directory. If the user wants to remove a directory or sub – directory then first delete all the files in the sub – directory and then remove sub directory and remove empty main directory.
13. COPY: The purpose of this command is to copy one or more specified files to another disk with same file name or with different file name.
Syntax : – C : / > copy source path target path

C : / > copy A :/> ˜ *. * ˜ 

C : /> ceema                                     

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